Understanding the Anxiety Disorders Connected to Claustrophobia:

Liberty Psychological Association

Claustrophobia is associated to multiple different anxiety-related disorders, including:

  • Generalized Anxiety Disorder : Generalized anxiety disorder refers to a non-stop, ongoing form of anxiety or even worrying. It maybe that generalized anxiety disorder plays a part in the development of claustrophobia. More than likely, there are some correlation between what got a person to develop the condition and his or her anxiety.
  • Panic Disorder: when some person is in an small space, they become most likely to have a panic attack. Possibly the individual was at a bigger risk of panic disorder or panic attacks, which could mean that they have general anxiety symptoms.
  • Social Anxiety Disorder: Those persons with social phobia more often experience a feeling of running away to escape as part of their condition, although usually this is connected to social situations and not just small spaces.

Finally, experts may not know how or why claustrophobia forms. Clearly, it maybe connected to other anxiety symptoms.

The Possible Causes of Claustrophobia:

Traumatic events seem to play a role in certain people’s claustrophobia. Children left in a room by chance or unusually punished by being placed in a small space, which would be the reason that for the development of claustrophobia in some individuals.

Or possibly, some may get claustrophobia without any traumatic experiences. Fears may also develop by learning it from someone close to them: often a mother or a father’s experiences of claustrophobia can be adopted by their child.

There are some that say that it’s an complicated phobia, where fear of small places without an escape way may have some type of survival benefit to it. As an example, claustrophobia could be adaptive because of small spaces and the persons might feel the risk of suffocation or inability to run away, which could be dangerous for them. In human history, this type of fear would have been a great advantage. But in todays world that we live in which at times is a safer world, it is less needed and it may interfere with ones life.

Does the Cause of Claustrophobia Matter:

There has been so much time spent on researching the cause, it is important to understand that not all kinds of anxiety have a clear reason, and finding the cause itself may not always be helpful. There are people that get anxiety disorders for no given reason “it could be genetically passed on from blood relatives?” as well as those people who develop them due to a series of unrelated events.

As an example, one can develop claustrophobia from any unrelated situation. If one had an anxiety attack at a wedding and then he or she left the event using a small elevator, their mind can associate the anxiety with the small elevator, but the anxiety was caused by the wedding party and not the small elevator. Trying to find the cause of claustrophobia is not an easy task.

Many believe that the cause does not always matter. There is a lot of evidence that most forms of anxiety, maybe treated with the right anxiety reducing techniques. So those suffering from claustrophobia can reduce their suffering by using certain correct strategies.

How to Reduce Anxiety and Claustrophobia:

This treatment approach is known as “exposure”: The treatment for claustrophobia is not easy because it usually includes experiencing a great amount of fear at first and then trying to cope with that intense fear. It is recommended that one tries this approach with the help of a mental health professional.

Research has shown that humans have the ability to suffer less anxiety when they are forced to face their fear for a long period of time. But this only can work if one allows themselves to experience the phobia until the phobia goes away. If one runs away from their fear, it may cause “reinforcement.”

Reinforcement: is the process, that ones mind is 100% convinced of their fear being legitimate, because he or she ran away from it, then it must be something very dangerous that is why they ran away from it. It is like as if ones behavior has an effect on how ones mind sees the scary situation. If a person continually avoids the scary situation, he or she will never get a chance to face the source of their fear and prove to themselves that he or she can survive it.

This can be complicated, we need to look at an example of claustrophobia:

The small elevator as an example. If one has a fear of small elevators, and he or she walks inside of one and feels claustrophobic, they could have the chance to run right away. But, if they leave the small elevator as fast as they can, they will “reinforce” the phobia. Why is that? In running away, he or she has confirmed to themselves the idea that small elevators represent fear so they have to be avoided it at all costs.

On the other hand, if one stays in the small elevator for an extended period of time, and accept their fear, and anxiety by controlling it, by using different anxiety reduction strategies, one can show his or her self that it’s okay to ride small elevators and that they are not dangerous.

For those people with extreme claustrophobia, this technique is not easy to do. This process is known as “exposure therapy,” and but this is something one can slowly adapt to it, rather than all of a sudden jumping into it and hoping it will all go away. It takes patients, courage, time and practice, but the guidance of a mental health professional could be required if the persons symptoms are severe.

one also needs to learn to control his or her anxiety disorders that could be linked to their claustrophobia. This could be especially true if the person is having a panic attack because the above types of conditions that maybe unlikely to go away by them self, “until” their claustrophobia is being managed.

Psychotropic medications might help reduce the symptoms, please see a psychiatrist.

By: Shervan K. Shahhian

Liberty Psychological Association

Liberty Psychological Association

By: Shervan K. Shahhian


Dr. Carl Rogers is known as one of the greatest psychologist of the 20th century. Dr. Carl Rogers was a humanist thinker and believed that people are generally good.

Dr. Rogers also said that people are fundamentally good, or a need to fulfill their human potential and become the best that they can be.

Dr. Rogers called his technique non-directive therapy at the beginning. His aim was to be as non-directive as possible, he saw that psycho-therapists guide their clients in some way. He also said that clients mostly look to their therapists for some type of advice or direction.

What is Client-Centered Therapy:

Finally, the Dr. Rogers technique came to be known as Rogerian, client-centered therapy or person-centered therapy.

Dr. Rogers used the term client rather than patient. He thought that the term patient implied that the person is sick and seeking a cure from a therapist.

Dr. Rogers used the term client instead of patient, he emphasized the importance of the person in seeking help, controlling their future, and overcoming their problems. This self-direction is a important part in client-centered therapy.

Like psychoanalyst Dr. Freud , Dr. Rogers thought that the therapeutic interaction could find insights and lasting changes in clients. While Dr. Freud focused on giving interpretations of what he thought were the unconscious problems that led to a patients troubles, Dr. Rogers believed that the therapist should stay non-directive.

This is to say, the psycho-therapist should not direct the client, should not give judgments on the client’s feelings, and should not give suggestions or alternatives. Instead, the client should play an equal part in the therapeutic sessions.

How Does Client-Centered Therapy Works:

Psychology professionals who utilize this technique strive to create a therapeutic environment that is relaxing, empathic, and non-judgmental. 2 of these key elements of client-centered therapy are:

  • It’s non-directive. Therapists let clients lead the talk and do not try to direct the client in a certain direction.
  • It emphasizes unconditional positive regard. Therapists is completely accepting and supportive of their clients without judgment.

Three Key Qualities of Client-Centered Therapists:

What Is Genuineness?

The therapist needs to speak of his or her feelings honestly. By showing this behavior, the therapist can help show the client and to also help the client develop this important skill.

What Is Unconditional Positive Regard?

The therapist must understand that the client needs to know who they are, show them support and care for them no matter what the client is experiencing in their life. Dr. Rogers believed that humans often develop issues because they are used to only getting conditional help; being accepted only if the person conforms to certain expectations.

By creating an environment of unconditional positive regard, the client is able to speak his or her true feelings without fear of being turned down.

Dr. Rogers also explained: “Unconditional positive regard means that when the therapist is experiencing a positive, acceptant attitude toward whatever the client is at that moment, therapeutic movement or change is more likely. It involves the therapist’s willingness to support the client no matter what feeling is going on at that moment – confusion, resentment, fear, anger, courage, love, or pride…The therapist prizes the client in a total rather than in a conditional way.”

What Is Empathetic Understanding?

The therapist needs to be reflective, meaning: acting as a mirror of the client’s thought and feelings. The goal of this technique is to allow the client to gain an open understanding of their own inner feelings, emotions and perceptions.

By showing these 3 characteristics, therapists can assist clients to grow psychologically, become self-aware, and change his or her behavior by self-direction. In this type of therapeutic relationship, a client feels safe and free from judgment. Dr. Rogers believed that this type of environment allows clients to make a healthier view of the world and a less cloudy view of one self.

What Is Self-Concept:

Self-concept also an important part in person-centered therapy.

Dr. Rogers believed that self-concept as an organized set of beliefs and ideas about the self. The self-concept plays an important role in determining not only how people see themselves, but also how they view and interact with the world around them.

At times self-concept could be similar to reality, which Dr. Rogers referred to as congruence. In some cases, self-perceptions are sometimes not real or not in reality with what exists in the actual world. Dr. Rogers believed that most people distort reality to some amount, but when self-concept is in conflict with reality, incongruence can come true.

As an example, a young lady might perceive herself as a great athlete, despite the truth that her actual performance on the track reveals that she is not skilled and could use extra training.

Through the therapy of person-centered therapy, Dr. Rogers believed that people can learn to change their self-concept to achieve congruence and a true view of themselves and the world. For example, imagine a young man who views himself as not interesting and a poor conversationalist despite the fact that others find him fascinating and quite interesting.

Because his self-perceptions are not real and not congruent with reality, he might experience poor self-esteem and self confidence as a result. The client-centered process focuses on providing unconditional positive regard, empathy, and genuine support in order to help the client in therapy to reach a more congruent view of himself

Client-Centered Therapy Role in the TV Culture:

Actor Bob Newhart portrayed a psycho-therapist who used client-centered therapy on “The Bob Newhart Show” which aired from 1972 to 1978, which was popular.

The Effectiveness of Client-Centered Therapy:

Many major research studies have shown that the 3 qualities that Dr. Rogers emphasized, genuineness, unconditional positive regard, and empathetic understanding, are all helpful. However, some negative based studies have showed that these 3 factors alone are not necessarily enough to promote long lasting change in clients.

One study that checked the effectiveness of person-centered therapy concluded that Dr. Rogers approach is effective for persons suffering from the common mental health issues such as depression, anxiety, and could even be helpful for those persons experiencing more moderate to serious symptoms.

By: Shervan K. Shahhian

What is a Codependent Relationships?

By: Shervan K. Shahhian

Liberty Psychological Association

Codependency is mostly used to describe a relationships where one is needy, or dependent upon, another.

The term codependency is more than an everyday clinginess. A codependent relationship is far more extreme than clinginess. A codependent person will plan their entire life around pleasing the other person, or the enable the other person.

A codependent relationship is a relationship where one needs the other person, who in turn, needs to be needed. This codependent circular relationship is the foundation of what many experts refer to when they talk about the “cycle” of codependency.

The codependent person’s self-esteem and self-worth will come only from sacrificing themselves for their significant other who is glad to receive their sacrifices.

Certain Facts About Codependency:

  • A codependent relationships can be between romantic partners, family members, or friends.
  • Often, a codependent relationship includes emotional or physical abuse.
  • Most of the time friends and family members of a codependent person may see that something is wrong.
  • Like any other mental or emotional health problem, the treatment protocol requires time and effort, as well as the help of a professional.

Dependence vs. Codependence

One should know the difference between depending on another, which can be a positive thing and an desirable trait, or codependency, which is harmful.

Examples that can illustrate the differences:

Dependent: 2 people rely on each other for love and support. Both partners can find value in their relationship.

Codependent: The codependent one feels worthless and unless they are needed by the other person and they are making drastic sacrifices for the other. The enabler gets gratification from getting their every need met by the codependent.

The codependent person can only be happy when they are making extreme sacrifices for their partner. The codependent feels they must be needed by the other person to have a purpose in life.

Dependent: Both partners make their relationship a priority, but they can also find joy in outside activities and interests like: other friends, and hobbies.

Codependent: The codependent person has no self identity, interests, or values outside of their destructive codependent relationship.

Dependent: Both partners can express their needs, emotions and find ways to make their relationship work better for both of them.

Codependent: The codependent person feels that their needs, desires are not important and they will not express them. They may have a difficult time to recognizing their own feelings or needs.

One or both sides can be codependent. A codependent individual will let go of other important areas of their life to please their partner. Their sick and extreme dedication to the other person may cause damage to:

  • Their other relationships.
  • Their work, school and career.
  • Their everyday self care responsibilities.

One should know that the enabler’s role is also dysfunctional. An individual who depends on a codependent does not learn how to have an equal, balanced relationship and is often comes to depend on another person’s sacrifices and neediness.

The Symptoms of Codependency:

It sometimes can be hard to notice the difference between a person who is codependent and a person who is just clingy or very enamored with another. But, an individual who is codependent will usually:

  • A codependent person finds no joy or happiness in a life outside of doing things for the other person.
  • A codependent person can stay in the relationship even if they are aware that their partner does hurt them.
  • A codependent person will do anything to please and satisfy their enabler, no matter the damage to themselves.
  • A codependent person feels a constant stress about their codependent relationship due to their desire to always be making the other person happy, at any cost.
  • A codependent person will use all their energy and time to give their partner everything they want.
  • A codependent person feels guilt about thinking of themselves in the relationship and will not show any personal needs or desires.
  • A codependent person will ignore their own conscience and morals to do what the other person wants of them.

Others may try to talk to the codependent person about their concerns. But even if others suggest that the person is too codependent, a dependent person in a codependent relationship will find it difficult to end the relationship.

The codependent individual will feel extreme difficulty about separating themselves from the enabler because their own life, and identity is dependent on sacrificing themselves for the other person.

How does a codependent relationship start?

Codependency is a learned behavior that usually comes from their past behavioral patterns and emotional problems. It was once thought to be a result of growing up with an addict parent.

Professionals now say codependency can result from a range of issues.

Damaging Parental Relationships:

Substance addicted parents at many times prioritize their needs over their children’s. This very serious issue may cause the children to become codependent as adults.

Adults who are codependent may often had problems with their parental relationship as a child or teenager.

These children and teens may have been taught that their own needs were less important than their parents’ needs, or not important at all.

In these types of dysfunctional families, children may have been taught to focus on their parent’s needs and to never think of their own needs.

Very needy parents may teach their children that: if the kids want anything for themselves they are selfish or greedy.

As a result, these children learn to forget their own needs and think only of what they can do for others.

In these horrible situations, one of the parents:

  • Maybe addicted to alcohol or drugs.
  • Very young parents, “Kids having kids”, or just a lack of maturity and emotional development, that has resulted in their own self-centered needs and wants.

These horrible situations may cause gaps in the emotional development of children, leading them to find codependent relationships as adults.

Growing Up With a Mentally or Physically Ill Family Member:

Codependency may be a result of caring for a person who is chronically ill for a long time, or being in the role of caregiver for a long time, especially starting at a young age, this situation may result in Children neglecting their own needs and growing up with a habit of only helping others.

In some situations a person’s self-worth may come form and around being needed by others and getting nothing in return.

Not all people who live with an ill family member develop codependency. But, it can happen, if a parent or a primary caretaker in the family displays the dysfunctional behaviors as listed above.

Abusive Family Dynamics:

Sexual abuse, physical, and emotional abuse will cause psychological problems that can last years or even an entire lifetime. One of the many problems that can arise from past trauma is codependency.

A child or teenager who is abused will learn to hide their pain as a defense mechanism against the abuse. This learned behavior can result in caring only about another’s feelings and not acknowledging their own needs, as an adult.

Sometimes an individual who is abused as a child or teen will look for abusive relationships later in life, because they are only familiar with this type of abusive relationship. This will often result in an codependent relationships.

Treatment of Codependency:

In individual or group therapy could be more helpful than couples therapy, because it can help the codependent person find their own feelings and actions as a separate and outside of the codependent relationship.

These Are Some Things that May Help Toward Having a Positive, Balanced Relationship:

  • Person in a codependent relationships might need to take steps to find some personal time in the relationship. They may need to explore and find a hobby or an activity that they may find enjoyable outside of the codependent relationship.
  • A codependent individual may try to spend more time with supportive friends and family members.
  • The enabler must realize the fact that they are damaging their codependent partner by allowing them to make extreme sacrifices for them.

Both, individual or group therapy can be very helpful for people who are codependent or in a codependent relationships. A professional can help them dig down inside and express their feelings that may have been buried since their childhood.

Persons who are or were victims of abuse will need to accept their past abuse and begin to feel their own needs and emotions again. Self care is what all humans must do for themselves.

Finally, both sides in a codependent relationship must learn to accept specific trends of behavior, such as “the urge of needing to be needed at any cost” and expecting the other person to plan their whole entire life around them.

By: Shervan K. Shahhian

  • Liberty Psychological Association



Past psychical research was done with psychics, spiritualist, mediums, mystics of all kinds. By the 1930s, in the U.S. attracted the interest of some well-known scholars and institutions, a modern and more sophisticated investigation of the paranormal proceeded. Different groups did experiments on paranormal subjects, from precognition, to remote viewing, and spoon bending, to animal communication and energy field projection. Spirits and UFO’s were explored, as parapsychologists engaged with the intelligence organizations, the military and other groups. In the middle of the Cold War tensions with the Soviet and the United States government were very high so governments invested in the development of: “psychic spying.” The U.S. program was funded and tasked by the U.S. Department of Defense as well as most of the major intelligence departments like the: CIA, DEA, NSA, NSC, as well as the U.S. Secret Service.

Parapsychology was founded in different intellectual traditions, in the research worlds, and more than a few institutions and organizations. But the experiments by Mr. Joseph Rhine at the Duke University are truly regarded as the start of parapsychology as a science.

Mr. William McDougall, Rhine teamed up and went on to be known as the parapsychological pioneers. Mr. William McDougall, created forms of ESP, that included telepathy “mind-to-mind communication without known physical means”, clairvoyance “seeing things not present”, precognition “knowing things before they happen” and psycho-kinesis “mind over matter”. Mr. Rhine was a believer in that there was and is indisputable evidence of ESP as reality, and ESP it operated freely in the physical and in the living body, there is a lot to be said about the soul that will survive the death of the body, this was a proof of life-after-death in this thesis.

The “Rhine’s scientific revolution” it encompassed many elements. Mr. Rhine provided parapsychology with a systematic order of sound experiments, to show the conditions and the extent of psi phenomena and not just trying to prove their existence. In this manner, Mr. Rhine did give the field of parapsychology academic and scientific standing. Mr. Rhine dice-rolling experiments, used card-guessing as an example, he did verify statistically, scientifically, that ESP exists. Mr. Rhine proved that the human mind had far fewer limitations than one could imagine. Other than that the Duke University Laboratory, Mr. Rhine also founded the independent Rhine Research Center. Further, Mr. Rhine co-founded the prestige’s Journal of Parapsychology in the year 1937 and then the prestige’s Parapsychological Association in the year 1957, its mission was, as its written in its Constitution: (to advance parapsychology as a science, to propagate its knowledge in the field, and to mix the investigations with those of other types of science).

In the 1970s, different parapsychological organizations were founded, which included the Academy of Parapsychology and Medicine (1970), the Institute of Parascience (1971), the Academy of Religion and Psychical Research, the Institute for Noetic Sciences (1973), and the International Kirlian Research Association (1975). Major U.S. universities began doing their own experiments throughout the 1970’s. Universities like: Duke, Princeton, Stanford, Virginia, some others, all started mind-blowing research with very hip names. Stanford universities top secret CIA-funded research was called: “Project Stargate”, a way to examine people from far away through (remote viewing). In New Jersey, the Princeton Engineering Anomalies Research “PEAR” project looked into extrasensory perception “ESP” and telekinesis “TK”. The University of Virginia’s Department of Perceptual Studies, then, they also researched reincarnation and near-death experiences “NDEs”, and on top of that: other altered states of consciousness, as Duke University’s Parapsychology Laboratory was the start of modern parapsychology in the United States of America which was operating all kinds of tests.

Under the command of the well known cultural anthropologist Ms. Margaret Mead, the Parapsychological Association took a big step in advancing the world of parapsychology in the year 1969 when it connected with the American Association for the Advancement of Science “AAAS”, the biggest general scientific society on the planet. This connection fostered even more belief and general openness for occult phenomena and psychic phenomena in the decade of 1970s. While university research started, brought in of spiritual experts from the Asian continent, and they claimed abilities that they produced by meditation, and the altered states of consciousness, which was researched. Parapsychology experts used ganzfeld experiments for sizing ESP abilities, as an example. Ganzfeld tests did quantity telepathy by separating 2 people in isolated rooms, where one person tried to send a telepathic picture to the another. Researchers also founded that ESP abilities increased under hypnosis. Hypnosis usually includes relaxation and the power of suggestion in a comfortable setting, researchers suggested that one of these reasons, or in a combination could be responsible for higher psi results.

Mr. Uri Geller, an illusionist, showed a very interesting case study, and Mr. Uri Geller did divide the scientific community in some way. Mr. Uri Geller opened up the world of paranormal activities during the mid-1970s with his spoon-bending and telepathic abilities. Mr. Uri Geller abilities were significant, and his unbelievable mind was sufficiently powerful, and it prompted articles in Nature magazine, among other magazines, and it became a basis of study at Stanford. Considerable debate followed. The Stanford Research Institute was founded at first to do experiments for the U.S. Armed Forces, but it split from the main university after some anti-war student demonstrations at the end of the 1960s. In the year between 1972-1973, researchers experimented with Geller started to research his well known ability to bend spoons with his mind and his ESP powers. The findings were good for Mr. Geller, and they showed the misunderstood powers of the mind, but more modern Scientist were far from sympathetic.

At first, the power of suggestibility was important in the beliefs in the (paranormal). Many people were affected by the TV programs and newspaper articles, and had lost their understanding. “Who controls the media, might control the mind.” The research scientists were too (critical, skeptical, but also observant, some believe). The standards of the experiments and the responsibility of scientists appeared to be skeptical. What is important is that the historical perspective. There are millions of cases of clairvoyance and other internal powers that come from the mind, that have long histories, stretching backward into the beginnings of recorded history.

The fame of paranormal research went on throughout the 1970s and all the way into the 1980s. It was also seen in popular culture, with the authors like: Stephen King’s. Stephen King also used Telekinesis, telepathy, inspired films Carrie (1976), The Shining (1980), The DeadZone (1983), and Firestarter (1984). But ghosts and ghouls, angels and the afterlife have been popular topics since the beginning of time. Science fiction ideas, UFO’s and paranormal evidence also came together in films of the 1970s.

By around 1989, the Parapsychological Association said that it had members working in over 30 countries. On top of that, research not associated with the “P.A: The Parapsychological Association” was done in Eastern communist Europe and the former communist Soviet Union. With so much research and interest in parapsychological investigations, Religious and atheist opposition also grew and was skeptical of parapsychologists and the giving of any formal degrees in the field. This was science, but the religious and the atheist skeptics argued against it.

There was the founding of the Committee for the Scientific Investigation of Claims of the Paranormal (CSICOP) in the year 1976, which the name was changed to the Committee for Skeptical (or denial) Inquiry (CSI), which was compromised by skeptics, non-believers and critics to stop the rise of parapsychology. this was established on April 30, 1976, at an international conference at SUNY-Buffalo and the topic was: (The New Irrationalism’s: Antiscience and Pseudoscience). (There has been an enormous increase in public interest in psychic phenomena, the occult, and pseudoscience) wrote Paul Kurtz the co-founder of the organization.

The purpose of “CSICOP” was to check these all the evidence. Among the well known “CSICOP” members was astronomer Carl Sagan, biophysicist Francis Crick, evolutionary scientist Stephen Jay Gould, and zoologist Richard Dawkins, the science writer Isaac Asimov and psychologist Dr. Skinner acted as fellows. At the formation of the “CSICOP” organization, Kurtz, the editor of the Humanist magazine, spoke with passion on the scientific feelings towards antiscience and pseudoscience. Kurtz referred to parapsychology as nonsense, with Hate. He wanted to make it clear, but also un clear though, that the organization would not reject all documented claims. He said it wouldn’t automatically take the other side, but the “CSICOP” organization would seek to investigate, to confirm any claims about spoon bending and or reincarnation.

Some due to their religious beliefs or even atheist beliefs have a very hard time with Parapsychology, but they cannot stop Parapsychologist and the advancement of the science of parapsychology.

By: Shervan K. Shahhian

Liberty Psychological Association

Understanding Unwanted Intrusive Thoughts

Liberty Psychological Association

Many could have passing intrusive thoughts that seem to be out of their control: The content may feel scary, absurd, or threatening, and may go away after a few minutes. Intrusive thoughts can be scary and worrisome about what might go very wrong in ones life or in the in the life of the ones we care about, or terrible embarrassing impulsive behavior that one might possibly act out.

For some, intrusive thoughts might cause overwhelming anxiety. These kinds of intrusive thoughts might feel scary. So, for example, one might think, “What if I die now?” in the middle of a panic attack, Or one might think that they could hurt others as they are driving down a busy street.

There are other types of intrusive thoughts: Unwanted intrusive thoughts. These are sticky thoughts that may cause great anxiety. They could come from nowhere, arrive with a distressing pain, and cause fear, anxiety, guilt, shame, panic, and misery. The content of these unwanted intrusive thoughts can focus on sexual discus or dangerous, illegal, or socially unacceptable images. Typical examples include murdering someone, hurting a pet, stabbing and attacking a child, throwing people or self out of a window of a high rise building or in front of a speeding train, molesting others, walking out nude in public, grabbing a stranger’s chest, etc. Some might have sudden doubts, like “Did I just punch that guy? or did I just made a fool out of my self? and I didn’t realize it?” “What if I am not alive?” The list goes on and on. These some examples of what are unwanted intrusive thoughts.

Some who experience unwanted intrusive thoughts can become so afraid of committing bad acts that they picture in their mind that they can start sweating excessively, and also fear that their thoughts say something terrible about them. Some others can become ashamed and worried about these intrusive thoughts, so they keep them a secret.

Many of these unwanted intrusive thoughts have more unharmful content like having unfounded doubts about their relationships, their decisions, their sexuality or their identity, about their personal safety, their religion, or dying, or worries about unrealistic questions that cannot be answered.

There are many roamers out there about unwanted intrusive thoughts. One of the most distressing roamer is that having such intrusive thoughts means that one unconsciously wants to do the things that come into their mind. These roamers are not true. It is the effort people put in to fight these unwanted thought that makes it stay and fuels its return. People fight these intrusive thoughts because the content seems foreign, unwanted, and different than who they are. Usually, people with violent, uninvited intrusive thoughts are gentle people. Person’s who have unwanted intrusive thoughts about suicide love their life, and those people who have intrusive thoughts of yelling blasphemies in their temple value their religion. 

A second roamer is that every thought we have is worth dissecting. In truth, these intrusive thoughts are not notices, red flags, or warning signs, despite how one feels about them. They are just unwanted thoughts that need to be left alone.

Their are possibly more than 6 million people in the United States of America that are troubled by unwanted intrusive thoughts that might feel very threatening, that’s because nervousness takes over them. These evil thoughts could be disgusting, and they seem to have a lot of power. People tend to try desperately to get away from them. But all they are, are unwanted thoughts that are just absurd. The more one tries to push them away, by distracting them selves, or substitute them with other thoughts, the worst they become.

People who suffer from intrusive thoughts need to understand that their content is irrelevant and unimportant. Possibly everyone has occasional uncomfortable, weird, bizarre, bad, socially improper, annoying, or violent thoughts. The mind sometimes creates bad thoughts, and these are just part of our stream of consciousness. Intrusive thoughts are baseless. If one does not take them seriously or get into it, it can disappear and get wiped out in the flow of consciousness.

In reality, thoughts even a very bad thoughts are not an impulse. People who suffer from unwanted intrusive thoughts don’t have a issue with impulse control. The opposite their main problem is trying to control them. They are trying to hard to control their thoughts. Most of us know what happens when we try too hard not to think of a thing, it just gets worst. However, those who suffer from unwanted intrusive thoughts might lock themselves in the prison of their own mind. The more desperation, the worst it gets. The proper way to truly deal with unwanted intrusive thoughts is to stop fighting them. Excessive need for reassurance is not the solution.

Unwanted intrusive thoughts are reinforced by getting deep into them, giving them too much time, fighting them, and trying to force them away. One must leave those thoughts alone, and try to treat them as they are nothing, and then they will eventually fade away.

Steps for Changing Ones Attitude and Overcoming Unwanted Intrusive Thoughts:

  • In ones mind they should be labeled as “unimportant thoughts.”
  • One needs to remind his or her self that these intrusive thoughts are automatic, and baseless.
  • One should let the thoughts into their mind, and not try to push them away.
  • One should relax and learn to let them pass.
  • One should not forget that: less is more, calm down, give it time. Remembering that a sense of urgency will reinforce them.
  • If the thoughts came back again, don’t be surprised and let them float.
  • One should keep doing whatever they were doing before the intrusive thoughts arrived and allow them in. More attention, means more intrusive thoughts.

One Should:

  • Do not get involved with the thoughts in any way.
  • Try not to put the thoughts out of ones mind.
  • Do not spend time to figure out what the thoughts “are all about.”
  • Do not try to see what technique works better.

The above particular approach can be difficult to use. But if one tries it for just a few weeks, there can be an excellent chance that they could possibly see a reduction in the intensity and frequency of unwanted intrusive thoughts.

By; Shervan K. Shahhian

Liberty Psychological Association

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)

Liberty Psychological Association

by: Shervan K Shahhian

an Overview:

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (O.C.D.) features a series of unwanted thoughts and phobias or obsessions that can lead a person to do repetitive and compulsions behaviors. These obsessive compulsions can interfere with ones daily life and can cause the person significant distress.

One can try to stop or ignore these obsessions, but the problem is that it only increases and causes unwanted anxiety and distress. Finally, one will feel forced to perform compulsive behaviors so they can ease the stress. Despite all the efforts to let go or get rid of the bothersome and non-stop thoughts or stressful urges, that don’t go away. These types of obsessive urges leads to more and more ritualistic behavior. This is the vicious cycle of O.C.D.

O.C.D. is often connected to certain type of ritualistic behavior. as an example, an excessive phobia or getting contaminated by bacteria. To calm these contamination fears, one might compulsively wash hands, and shower until they bleed or their skin gets red or chapped.

If one has O.C.D, they may be embarrassed and ashamed about their obsessive condition, but medication and therapy treatment can be help them.

Symptoms of O.C.D:

Obsessive-compulsive disorder generally includes both compulsions and obsessions. But some might only have obsessive symptoms or only compulsive symptoms. One might understand or not understand that their compulsions and obsessions are unreasonable, excessive, it takes a great deal of their time, interfere with their daily life, work functioning, social functioning, and school.

O.C.D.  Symptoms:

O.C.D. obsessions are repeated, ongoing and not wanted thoughts, impulsiveness or images and cause the person distress or even anxiety. One might try not to pay attention to them or get away from them by performing a ritualistic compulsive behavior. These obsessions typically are intrusive, and when one is trying hard to think of or do other things.

Themes of Obsession are such as:

  • Fear of getting sick, contaminated or getting dirty.
  • Doubting ones self or others and having a hard time with tolerating uncertainty.
  • Extreme order, wanting things done in an orderly fashion and following an exact system.
  • Extreme fear of loss of control, or horrific or aggressive thoughts about losing control and harming others or themselves.
  • Constant unwanted thoughts, that can be: religious, aggressive, or sexual in nature.

Some examples of obsession symptoms and signs may include:

  • Fear of being infected by touching objects that others have touched before them.
  • Having constant doubts about: if they have locked the door or not?, or did they turned off the oven or not?
  • Overwhelming stress when things aren’t in a certain order or positioned in a certain way.
  • Scary mental images of driving a car into a crowd of innocent people.
  • Intrusive thoughts about causing an embarrassment, or shouting obscenities or acting like a fool in public.
  • Having unpleasant mental sexual images.
  • Staying away from situations that can trigger obsessions, such as getting contaminated by shaking hands of others.

Compulsion O.C.D. Symptoms:

O.C.D. compulsions are ongoing set of behaviors that can make a person feel driven to perform.

Ones O.C.D. behavior or mental acts are meant to reduce discomfort and anxiety related to their compulsive obsessions or to get them to stop something bad from happening. However, continuance of these compulsions brings the effected person no pleasure and may offer only a short relief from anxiety.

One may make up different rules and or rituals to follow that they think it can help calm their anxiety, when one is having obsessive thoughts. When these obsessive compulsions are extreme and not realistic they solve no problems that they are intended to fix.

The themes of these obsessions, compulsions typically are:

  • Excessive washing and cleaning.
  • Doubting and checking.
  • Contentious counting.
  • Extreme order.
  • Constantly following a strict routine.
  • Constant demand for reassurance.

Some examples of compulsion, their signs and symptoms may include:

  • Washing hands until their skin becomes raw and it bleeds.
  • Checking doors over and over again to make sure that they’re locked.
  • Checking the oven over and over again to make sure it’s off.
  • Constantly counting in specific patterns.
  • Constantly and silently preoccupied with repeating a certain prayer, word or phrase.
  • Arranging the canned foods to face the same direction.

The intensity may vary:

O.C.D. it typically begins in the teens or younger adulthood, but it can even start in childhood. Signs, symptoms usually starts gradually as they tend to vary in intensity throughout a person’s life. The types of compulsion and obsessions that one may experience can also change over a person’s life time. Symptoms may generally worsen when they experience more stress. O.C.D, is usually considered a whole life disorder, meaning it will take over the person’s life and it will last their whole life time. O.C.D, can in some have mild to moderate symptoms or in others can be very severe and time demanding til it becomes debilitating.

When Should a Person Seek Professional Help:

Perfectionist are very different than people suffering from O.C.D. Because perfectionist are those who require flawless outcomes or results. O.C.D. obsessive thoughts are not just worries about real life problems, or having clean things around or in order.

If a person compulsions and obsessions are affecting their quality of life, they should see medical doctor or mental health specialist.

What Are the Causes of O.C.D:

The total causes of obsessive-compulsive disorder are not fully understood at this time. But the main theories may include:

  • Biological factors: O.C.D. may be a result of alterations in the body’s own natural chemistry or brain functions.
  • Genetically effected: O.C.D. may have a genetic factors, but specific genes have not yet been identified.
  • Learned Behaviors: Obsessive phobia’s and compulsive behaviors can be learned from observing family members obsessions which gradually learned over time.

Risk Factors of O.C.D:

Risk factors that may push the risk higher till a person develops or triggers obsessive-compulsive disorder may include:

  • Family history of O.C.D: Having parents, siblings or other family members with the same disorder can increase a person’s risk of developing O.C.D.
  • Stressful events in life: If a person experiences stressful or traumatic events, the risk can increase. This reaction can, (for an unknown reason) trigger obsessive rituals, trigger the intrusive thoughts, and emotional distress characteristic of O.C.D.
  • A combination of other mental health disorders: O.C.D. may be related to other mental health disorders, or an combination of different mental health disorders such as: anxiety disorders, major depressive disorder, depression, substance abuse or tic disorders.

Complications of O.C.D:

Issues resulting from (O.C.D.) obsessive-compulsive disorder can include, among others things:

  • A lot of time spent engaging in ritualistic behaviors.
  • Medical health issues, such as skin disorders and: contact dermatitis from frequent hand-washing and or showering.
  • Difficulty going to work, school and or social activities.
  • Relationships issues.
  • Overall low quality of life resulting from their realistic, compulsive and obsessive thoughts and behaviors.
  • Suicide as a very unfortunate means to end the suffering, Suicidal thoughts and behavior.

Prevention of O.C.D:

There’s no known sure plan to prevent (O.C.D.) obsessive-compulsive disorder. But, getting professional treatment as soon as possible may help prevent O.C.D. from getting worse and improving ones quality of life.



by: Shervan K Shahhian, Liberty Psychological Association

Symptoms of Psychosis:

A person who develops psychosis will have their own unique group of symptoms and feelings, and experiences, according to their own circumstances.

There are 3 main symptoms that are connected with a psychotic episode:

  • Confused and disturbed thoughts.
  • Delusions.
  • Hallucinations.

Hallucinations that are associated to Psychosis:

Hallucinations are where someone feels, sees, smells, hears, or tastes things that are false and do not exist outside their mind:

  • Sight: seeing colors, shapes or people that do not exist.
  • Sounds: hearing voices or other sounds that do not exist.
  • Touch: a false feeling of being touched when there is nobody there.
  • Smell: an odor that other people cannot smell and that does not exist.
  • Taste: a false taste, or where there is nothing in the mouth.

Delusions that are associated to Psychosis:

A delusion is where a person has an solid belief in something untrue and does not exist.

A person with persecutory delusions may believe that there are individuals or groups of people that have plans to hurt or even kill them.

An individual with grandiose delusions that believes they have a lot of power and or authority. As an example, they may think they’re the supreme leader of a country or they have the power to bring the dead back to life.

People who do experience psychotic episodes are often unaware that their hallucinations or delusions are not real, which may cause them to feel scared or distressed.

Confused and Disturbed Thoughts that are associated with Psychosis:

An individual with psychosis may experience disturbed thoughts, confusion, and disrupted cycle of thought. These signs may include:

  • Fast and constant speech.
  • Disturbed speech: For example, they may jump from one topic to another at mid-sentence, they are very hard to follow.
  • All of a sudden loss of their train of thought, resulting in an sudden pause in their talk or activity.

Postnatal Psychosis:

Postnatal psychosis, also known as puerperal psychosis, is a very serious form of postnatal depression. this is a type of depression that some women may experience after giving birth.

It’s estimated that postnatal psychosis affects one woman out of one thousand women after giving birth. This type of depression most commonly occurs during the 1st couple of weeks after giving birth.

Postnatal psychosis could generally affect women who already have a mental health issues, such as schizophrenia or bipolar disorder.

As a combination of symptoms of psychosis, symptoms of postnatal psychosis may also include changes in the person’s mood:

  • A high, up mood known as mania, for example, feeling elevated, talking too much, and thinking too much or too rapidly.
  • A low, down mood, for example, feeling down, sad, a lack of energy, loss of appetite, and not being able to fall asleep.

One should contact their General Practitioner, (M.D.) immediately if a person or a loved one may be having developed postnatal psychosis as this is a Medical Emergency. If seeing their General Practitioner is not possible, one should Call 9-1-1 or call their local Emergency Services.

If one think there’s an immediate danger of harm or self harm, they must Call 9-1-1 and ask for Help.

Psychosis and Psychopath Are Not the Same:

The terms “psychopath” and “psychosis” sound similar, but should not be confused.

A person with psychosis has a short-term or an temporary or an acute situation that, if treated, can often lead to a complete recovery.

A psychopath is a person with an antisocial personality disorder which is a much more serious condition, which means:

  • Psychopaths don’t feel empathy for humans and animals, they don’t have the capacity to understand how others feel.
  • Psychopaths are manipulative in nature.
  • Psychopaths often do not care for the consequences of their actions.
  • Psychopaths often lie.

Individuals with an antisocial personality may sometimes be a physical threat to society, because they can be criminally violent like murders, mass murders and terrorist. Most people with psychosis usually tend to harm themselves and not others.


Liberty Psychological Association

An Overview of the Disorder:

Schizoaffective disorder is a mental health illness or disorder which is a combination of schizophrenia symptoms, like mood disorder, hallucinations or delusions, and, depression or mania.

There are 2 types of schizoaffective disorder, both may include some symptoms of schizophrenia.

  • Bipolar type of schizoaffective disorder which includes symptoms of mania and at times major depression.
  • Depressive type of schizoaffective disorder, which has only one major depressive symptoms.

Schizoaffective disorder may be different in each affected person.

Untreated schizoaffective disorder may lead to issues like: functioning at work, at school and in social situations, causing feelings of isolation and trouble holding down work or keeping up with school. People affected with schizoaffective disorder may need help and support with every day functioning. Talk therapy can help manage symptoms and improve quality of life of the affected person.

Symptoms of Schizoaffective Disorder:

Schizoaffective disorder symptoms may vary in different people. Individuals with this condition may experience psychotic symptoms, mood disorder, such as hallucinations or delusions. The bipolar type which has episodes of mania and sometimes feeling depressed or depressive type that has episodes of depression.

Although the development and the symptoms of schizoaffective disorder may be different, major features may include a major mood episode that is depression or manic mood and at least a 2 week periods of psychotic symptoms when there is not a major mood episode present.

Symptoms and signs of schizoaffective disorder may depend on the type of disorder:

Bipolar or the depressive type and may also include, among other things:

  • Delusions: having false, fixed beliefs, without evidence to proof it.
  • Hallucinations: such as hearing voices, feeling things on their body, smelling things, or seeing things that do not exist.
  • Impaired communication: and speech, like being incoherent.
  • Bizarre: or unusual behavior and actions.
  • Symptoms of depression: like feeling empty, hopeless, sad or worthless.
  • Periods of manic mood: with more energy and not needing much sleep for many days, and behaviors that are not normal for the affected person.
  • Impaired occupational: falling grades in school and decreased social functioning.
  • Problems with managing personal care: bad personal hygiene, not showering and shabby physical appearance.

When to get help:

If one thinks someone they know may have schizoaffective disorder symptoms, they should talk to that affected person about their symptoms. Although one may not force another to get professional help, one can offer advice and support for them to get help and find a qualified medical doctor or mental health specialist.

If a loved one can’t provide: food for him or her self, shelter, clothing or if their safety is a concern, one should call 9-1-1 or activate emergency services for assistance, so the person in question can be evaluated by a mental health specialist.

Suicidal Thoughts, Attempts or Behavior:

If a schizoaffective disorder person is Talking about suicide or exhibiting suicidal behavior they need to get help right away. If a loved has attempted suicide or has made a suicide plan, one needs to make sure someone stays with the suicidal person, and then they should Call 9-1-1 immediately or their local emergency services telephone number right away. Or, if possible one should safely, take the suicidal person to the nearest hospital emergency room.

Causes of Schizoaffective Disorder:

The actual causes of schizoaffective disorder are still being researched, but genetics could be a major factor.

Risk Factors of Schizoaffective Disorder:

Factors that may increase the chances of developing schizoaffective disorder may include:

  • Having a close blood relative: such as a father, mother or a sibling with schizoaffective disorder, schizophrenia or bipolar disorder.
  • Stressful occurrences that may trigger schizoaffective disorder symptoms.
  • Using and abusing mind-altering drugs, alcohol abuse which will worsen symptoms of schizoaffective disorder when an underlying disorder already exist.

Complications of Schizoaffective Disorder:

People suffering from schizoaffective disorder are also at an increased risk of:

  • Suicide, suicidal thoughts, or suicide attempts.
  • Social isolation, loneliness.
  • Family issues and interpersonal problems.
  • Unemployment, job loss or not being able to get hired.
  • Anxiety disorders and nervousness.
  • Alcohol or drugs and other substance use and abuse problems.
  • Significant health and medical problems.
  • Homelessness, and poverty.

Intermittent Explosive Disorder


a General Overview:

Intermittent explosive disorder involves angry verbal outbursts, or on going, repeated, sudden episodes of impulsive behavior , aggressive behavior, violent behavior in which a person reacts excessively and a out of proportion reaction to a given situation. Some these examples are: Road rage, domestic abuse, throwing things, and or breaking things, and or other types of temper tantrums could be signs of intermittent explosive disorder.

These intermittent explosive outbursts may cause the person and his or her loved ones significant distress, may destroy relationships, work and school, and they can have serious legal and financial repercussions.

Intermittent explosive disorder can be a life long disorder that can go on for years, although the seriousness and the degree of outbursts may go down with age. Treatment may involve medications, talk therapy/psychotherapy to help a person to control his or her aggressive impulses.

Symptoms of Intermittent Explosive Disorder:

Explosive out breaks may occur suddenly, with very little or no warning signs, and possibly may even last less than 30 minutes. These explosive episodes may occur frequently or sometimes separated by weeks or months of nonaggression. Less serious verbal outbursts may occur in between Intermittent explosive disorder episodes of physical aggression. One may be impulsive, aggressive, irritated, or chronically angry most of the day and night.

Aggressive and impulsive episodes may be followed or accompanied by:

  • Chest tightness, chest pain.
  • Impulsivity, Irritability.
  • Increased energy due to extreme anger.
  • Rapid, and racing thoughts.
  • Tingling feelings.
  • Shaking, tremors.
  • Heart palpitations.
  • Rage, and anger.

The explosive and aggressive verbal and behavioral outbursts are usually blown out of proportion regardless of the situation, with no thought of consequences, and may include:

  • Threatening and or assaulting people and or animals.
  • Physical fights.
  • Shouting.
  • Heated arguments.
  • Slapping, shoving or pushing due for no good reason.
  • A prolonged outbursts, being bitter, outspoken denunciations.
  • Property damage.
  • Temper tantrums.

One may feel a sense of relief at times and tiredness at other times after an explosive episode. After words one may even feel sorrow, remorse, regret and embarrassment.

When Does One Needs to Professional Help:

If an individual recognize their own behavior to be the description of intermittent explosive disorder, one needs to talk with a psycho-therapist regarding treatment options or ask their medical doctor for a referral to a psychiatrist.

What Causes Intermittent Explosive Disorder Symptoms:

Intermittent explosive disorder can start in childhood, possibly after the age of six years or during the difficult teenage years. This is more seen in young adults rather than in the elderly. No one is sure of the exact cause of this disorder, but it could be caused by different environmental and biological issues.

  • Environmental: Most individuals with this disorder grown up in families that where explosive in behavior and words, where physical fights were very normal. Being exposed to this type of explosive violence at a young age can make kids exhibit the same explosive behavior as they get older.
  • Genetics: Genetics is always a factor. There may be a genetic link, causing this disorder to be passed down from parents to their children.
  • Differences in how the brain works: There could be some differences in the structure, the function and the chemistry of the brain of the people with intermittent explosive disorder compared to others who don’t have this disorder.

Risk factors of Intermittent Explosive Disorder:

These risk factors are increased when it comes to the risk of developing intermittent explosive disorder:

  • History of physical abuse: The individuals who were abused as children or have experienced more than one traumatic event have more chances of developing intermittent explosive disorder.
  • History of other mental health disorders: Individuals who already have antisocial personality disorder, borderline personality disorder or other disorders that include disruptive abnormal behaviors, such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), might already have intermittent explosive disorder.

Complications of Intermittent Explosive Disorder:

Person’s with intermittent explosive disorder have an increased risk of:

  • Impaired interpersonal relationships: They’re often seen by others as always being upset and angry so they might stay away from them. They may have many verbal fights and or be physically abusive. These abusive actions can and will cause relationship problems, separation, divorce and family issues.
  • Trouble at work, home or school: Other problems associated to intermittent explosive disorder may also include loss of work, getting suspended from school, automobile accidents, financial issues and or getting in trouble with the law.
  • Problems with mood: Moodiness, mood disorders such as anxiety, and depression usually occurs with intermittent explosive disorder.
  • Problems with alcohol and other substances : Drug and or alcohol addiction/abuse often occurs with intermittent explosive disorder.
  • Physical, medical health problems: Medical problems are more usual and may include: ulcers, chronic pain, high blood pressure, diabetes, heart attack, heart disease and stroke.
  • Self-harm: Intentional self injuring behavior or suicide attempts could occur.

Prevention Could Save Lives and Relationships:

If one already has intermittent explosive disorder, prevention is the best solution by getting treatment from a mental health professional. A Combination of talk therapy, medication therapy and these suggestions may help a person prevent some incidents from getting worst and getting out of control:

  • One needs to stick with to their treatment plan.: Attending all therapy sessions, learning and practicing coping skills, and taking their prescribed medications correctly. The prescribing doctor may suggest maintenance medications to stop recurrence of explosive episodes and behavior.
  • Practicing relaxation techniques: Constant practice of calm deep breathing, self relaxing by imagery and or tai chi, yoga may help a person stay more relaxed.
  • Developing new ways of thinking (cognitive self restructuring): Altering the way one thinks about a bad situation by having reasonable expectations, rational thoughts, and logic may improve how a person views and reacts to a frustrating event.
  • Using problem-solving techniques: Making a plan to find a better way to solve a bad problem. Even if one can’t fix the problem immediately, having a good plan can improve the out come.
  • Learning ways to improve ones communication: Listening to what others are saying, or trying are trying to share, and then thinking about the best answer rather than exploding and saying the first thing that that comes to mind.
  • Changing ones environment: When it’s possible, one should leave and or avoid a bad situations from getting worst. Also, finding personal time may enable a person to get a better handle on things, and getting ready for an upcoming and a stressful event and or a bad situation.
  • Avoid mood-altering substances: Staying sober and away from illegal drugs, alcohol, and or even caffeine. Staying legal.

Delusional Disorder

What is Delusional Disorder?

Delusional disorder, used to be called paranoid disorder. This is a serious mental illness which is called a psychosis, where an individual cannot tell what is real from what is not real. The main part of this mental disorder is the fact of delusions, which are unchangeable beliefs in something that is not true. Pearson’s suffering from delusional disorder experience non-bizarre delusions, which may involve certain situations that could occur in normal life. Some of the examples could be: being followed, poisoned by someone, someone has deceived them, some have conspired against them, or a long distance love affair. These delusional thoughts mostly involve the misinterpretation of certain perceptions or certain experiences. In real life, these delusional situations could be either not true at all or highly exaggerated.

Person’s with delusional disorder often are able to socialize and function in society quite normally, apart from the issues of their delusion, and mostly do not act in an obviously abnormal or in a bizarre manner. They are unlike people with other psychotic mental disorders, which also might have delusions as a part of their disorder. In certain cases, which, person’s with delusional disorder can become very preoccupied with their delusions that their lives may become interrupted.

Although delusions could be a part of more known disorders, such as schizophrenia, delusional disorder by itself is rare. Delusional disorder most often occurs in middle age and in older adults.

How Many Types Of Delusional Disorder Are There?

There are multiple types of delusional disorders depending on the main theme of the delusions that the individual is experiencing. Some the kinds of delusional disorder may include:

  • Erotomanic: A person with erotomanic kind of delusional disorder may believe that others, especially important and or famous people, are in love with them. The delusional person might attempt to contact the person who is the object of their delusion, and even stalk them, this behavior is not unusual.
  • Grandiose: A person with this type of grandiose delusional disorder has an over-stated sense of self worth, identity, power, and or knowledge. The delusional person could believe she or he is very talented or has made important discoveries.
  • Jealous: A person with this kind of delusional disorder may believe that their spouse or sexual partner is cheating on them.
  • Persecutory: Person’s with this type of delusional disorder may really believe that they are or others close to them are being abused, or mistreated. They can also think that people are spying on them. They may also think that others are planning to harm them. It is usual for delusional people with this type of delusional disorder to make unfounded complaints to the police over and over again.
  • Somatic: A person with this kind of delusional disorder may believe that they have physiological issues or even medical problems.
  • Mixed: Person’s with this kind of delusional disorder have 2 or even more kinds of delusions listed above.

What Things Could Cause Delusional Disorder?

Like other psychotic disorders, the exact reason or reasons of delusional disorder is not known at this time. There are researchers that are working to find the cause or causes of delusional disorders , however, one should look into the role of family history/genetic factors, biological factors, environmental factors and psychological factors.

  • Genetic: Delusional disorder is more common in person’s who have other family members with delusional disorder or schizophrenia. This fact may suggest that there could be a genetic link involved. Many believe that, similar to other mental disorders, a possibility of developing delusional disorder could be passed on from parents to their kids.
  • Biological: There are researchers that are studying how abnormalities of some parts of the brain could be involved in the development of delusional disorders. Delusional people could have an imbalance of certain chemicals in the brain, called neurotransmitters, they could also have been shown to be connected to the development of delusional symptoms. Neurotransmitters are chemicals that assist nerve cells in the brain to send messages to one other. A chemical imbalance in the brain can interfere with the transmission of messages, which might lead to symptoms.
  • Environmental and psychological: Certain evidence may suggest that delusional disorder can be caused by stress. Substance abuse might make the delusions worse or even create them. People who prefer to be alone, like: the disabled, immigrants or those with bad sight and hearing, could be more vulnerable to develop delusional disorder.

What are Some of the Symptoms Delusional Disorder?

Non-bizarre delusions is the most well known symptom of this disorder. Some of the other symptoms that could appear may include:

  • Irritability, angry issues, or low mood.
  • Experiencing hallucinations like: seeing things, hearing things, or feeling things that are not real or don’t exist, that are connected to their delusion such as: a person that believes that he or she has a certain bad odor, which is not true.